(3) This title should be applicable to such a ruler who might have constructed a strong wall across a mountain pass to protect his kingdom from the incursions of the Gog and Magog . He conciliated local populations by supporting local customs and even sacrificing to local deities. Herodotus’s story may be apocryphal, but Cyrus’s conquests in Central Asia were probably genuine, since a city in farthest Sogdiana was called Cyreschata, or Cyropolis, by the Greeks, which seems to prove the extent of his Eastern conquests. It is noteworthy that after the Achaemenian empire the name does not appear again in sources relating to Iran, which may indicate some special sense of the name. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Definition of Cyrus in the Definitions.net dictionary. Author of. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. (Biography) known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder. His empire, stretching from the Aegean Sea to the Indus River, was the largest that had ever existed at the time of his rule. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The capture of Babylon delivered not only Mesopotamia into the hands of Cyrus but also Syria and Palestine, which had been conquered previously by the Babylonians. Cyrus the Great used powerful armies and military prowess to expand his kingdom. His saga follows in many details the stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere in the ancient world. In the Bible (e.g., Ezra 1:1–4), Cyrus is famous for freeing the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland. Little is known of the family life of Cyrus. Meaning of Cyrus. One cuneiform text in Akkadian—the language of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) in the pre-Christian era—asserts he was the. ABOVE: Presumed relief carving of Cyrus the Great in the form of a supernatural being from Pasargadae In his book The Histories, the Greek historian Herodotos of Halikarnassos (lived c. 484 – c. 425 BC) portrays Cyrus as an ideal ruler and paragon of wisdom. One was the city of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan, former capital of the Medes, and another was a new capital of the empire, Pasargadae, in Persis, said to be on the site where Cyrus had won the battle against Astyages. Cyrus the Great. His reputation as “great” was probably enhanced by the extent to which his figure was mythologized. According to the legend, Astyages, the king of the Medes and overlord of the Persians, gave his daughter in marriage to his vassal in Persis, a prince called Cambyses. Among the notable kings of the empire were Cyrus II (the Great) and Darius I. A Mede was probably made an adviser to the Achaemenian king, as a sort of chief minister; on later reliefs at Persepolis, a capital of the Achaemenian kings from the time of Darius, a Mede is frequently depicted together with the great king. Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian, Harvard University. Cyrus definition, king of Persia 558?–529: founder of the Persian empire. "I want to tell you that the Jewish people have a long memory; so we remember the proclamation of the great king, Persia had a rich history dating back to 550 BC, when the Achaemenid Empire was founded by, Their topics include past and present as paradoxon theorema in Polybius, documents and narrative: reading the Roman-Carthaginian treaties in Polybius' Histories, Polybius and Xenophon: Hannibal and, The list of conquerors and imperialists who have come and gone is daunting: From, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Steppe queen movie makes Kazakhs wonder if life will imitate art, Paradise on Earth: Ancient gardens in Iran, Persian Gardens the focus of Barony Club talk, THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REMOTE VIEWING (CLAIRVOYANCE) AND PREDICTING THE FUTURE, Learn about ancient Egyptian scrolls in Barrington, Nowruz a time of resistance for many Iranians, The Trump Temple Coins that Changed the World now in Silver, America's difficult choices in Afghanistan, cys-his2 zinc finger transcription factor. Thus it was by diplomacy as well as force of arms that he established the largest empire known until his time. When Cyrus defeated Astyages he also inherited Median possessions in eastern Iran, but he had to engage in much warfare to consolidate his rule in this region. Alternate versions of Cyrus’s life can be found in other Classical texts, such as works by the Greek historians Xenophon and Ctesias—both of whom lived not long after Herodotus. Cyrus - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. The meaning of his name is in dispute, for it is not known whether it was a personal name or a throne name given to him when he became a ruler. He not only conciliated the Medes but united them with the Persians in a kind of dual monarchy of the Medes and Persians. Start studying AP World History Chapter 4. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cyrus-the-Great, Iran Chamber Society - Biography of Cyrus II, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Cyrus the Great, The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - Cyrus the Great, The Father and Liberator. ): Founder of the Persian Empire; b. Astyages marched against the rebel, but his army deserted him and surrendered to Cyrus in 550 bce. According to the Greek historian, Cyrus was at first successful in defeating the ruler of the nomads—called the Massagetai—who was a woman, and captured her son. They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous The various oral traditions relating to his birth and youth are preserved only in the works of Greek authors like Herodotus, Ctesias, and Xenophon, who present contradictory accounts of a mostly legendary nature. He spared his enemies and often gave them Most scholars agree, however, that Cyrus the Great was at least the second of the name to rule in Persia. The Greek historian Herodotus provides the most famous account of Cyrus’s life in his History, a work that was probably as much fiction as it was fact (if not more). Cyrus The Great is the candidate that fits this description quite fittingly. One states, “I am Cyrus the King, an Achaemenian.” Cyrus was the seventh in the Achaemenid dynastic line. Cyrus the Great in Kurdish Kurmanji translation and definition " Cyrus the Great ", English-Kurdish Kurmanji Dictionary online add translation Director, Asia Institute, Pahlavi University, Shīrāz, Iran, 1969–74.  Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East , [ 6 ] expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia , parts of Europe and the … Information and translations of Cyrus in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on … After his conquest of Babylonia, he again turned to the east, and Herodotus tells of his campaign against nomads living east of the Caspian Sea. The dynasty came to an end with the death of Darius … Herodotus says that the Persians called Cyrus their father, while later Achaemenian rulers were not so well regarded. 6 sentence examples: 1. The ruins today, though few, arouse admiration in the visitor. Cyrus seems to have had several capitals. It’s clear that he died while campaigning on his empire’s eastern frontier, somewhere near the Oxus (Amu Darya) and Jaxartes (Syr Darya) rivers. Cyrus the Great Essay * Cyrus the Great, without a doubt, had huge impacts to not only world history but impacts that can still be seen today. From the rule of, Nowruz is a pre- Islamic holiday and many Iranians travel to the Shiraz province in order to congregate at the tomb of. Cyrus had to borrow the traditions of kingship from the Medes, who had ruled an empire when the Persians were merely their vassals. Cyrus was born between 590 and 580 bce, either in Media or, more probably, in Persis, the modern Fārs province of Iran. DICTIONARY.COM See also anabasis, katabasis An account of the latter appears in the Bible: Cyrus is the ruler that liberated the Jewish people from their Babylonian captors. • CYRUS THE GREAT (noun) The noun CYRUS THE GREAT has 1 sense: 1. king of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire (circa 600-529 BC) Familiarity information: CYRUS THE GREAT used as a noun is very rare. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Similar beliefs also exist about the founders of later dynasties throughout the history of Iran. Pasargadae, built by Cyrus after he took the throne, was the ceremonial capital city of the early Achaemenid dynasty. Astyages, having had a dream that the baby would grow up to overthrow him, ordered Cyrus slain. According to the most well-known account of Herodotus, Cyrus was the son of the Persian king Cambyses (c. 580-559 BCE) and the Median princess Mandane, daughter of the Median king Astyages (585-550 BCE). They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous Cyrus's tomb looked like a ziggurat with an ancient Armenian templelike space on top. Cyrus led other much-mythologized campaigns during his reign, such as his conquests of Lydia and Babylonia. Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian empire, the dynastic family who led the Persians between 550 and 330 BC Cyrus II King of Anshan (Maybe) The Greek "father of history" Herodotus never says Cyrus II the Great came from a royal Persian family, but rather that he acquired his power through the Medes, to whom he was related by marriage. 650 BC), King of Persia the grandfather of Cyrus the Great; and Cyrus the Younger (died 401 BC), brother to the Persian King Artaxerxes II of Persia On the son’s committing suicide in captivity, his mother swore revenge and defeated and killed Cyrus. In any case, it is clear that Cyrus came from a long line of ruling chiefs. Cyrus (Persian: کوروش) is a male given name.It is the given name of a number of Persian kings.Most notably it refers to Cyrus the Great.Cyrus is also the name of Cyrus I of Anshan (ca. 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